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Prangli saare veesüsteem

Hiis, Kätlin (2015) Prangli saare veesüsteem. [thesis] [en] Water System of Prangli Island.

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Abstract

Prangli saar kuulub Viimsi valla teritooriumile ning seal elab ligikaudu 150 elanikku. Suveperioodil on see arv mitme kordselt suurem turistide ja suvitajate arvelt. 1999. aastal ehitatud puhastussüsteem ei rahuldanud saare veevajadust ning oli vaja ehitada uus ning efektiivsem puhastussüsteem. 2014. aastal valmis puhastussüsteem, mis kasutas sama veehaaret, mis vana süsteemgi, kuid veekvaliteet on paranenud tänu uuele tehnoloogiale. Vesi pärineb Kvaternaari veekompleksist ning vett võetakse umbes 12 meetri sügavuselt. Vana torustik oli rauasetet täis ning surve muutus madalamaks, kuid nüüd on seal plastiktorud, mis ei roosteta ning surve püsib ühtlane. Prangli saare uus veepuhastussüsteem vastab planeeritud joonisele, mis tehti enne paigaldust ning tarbijad on veekvaliteediga rahul. Suurimaks probleemiks Prangli saarel oli ja on kõrge raua- ja mangaanisisaldus vees. Uue süsteemiga on tarbijateni jõudev vesi madalama raua- ja mangaanisisaldusega kui vana süsteemi puhul, kuid siiski ei vasta see Sotsiaalministri määrusele nr 82. Selleks, et joogivesi vastaks piirnormile on vaja leida lahendus. Üheks lahenduseks oleks pöördosmoosi kasutamine koos elektrodeioniseerimisseadmega. Peale rauaärastusseadet võtaks pöördosmoosi seade välja ka üleliigse raua ja mangaani, mis rauaärastusega välja ei läinud. Teiseks variandiks oleks lisada kloori, mis samuti muudaks rauaärastuse mitmeid kordi effektiivsemaks. Teiseks lahenduseks on kodudesse paigaldada isiklikud pöördosmoosiseadmed, mis iga majapidamise vee kvaliteeti individuaalselt parandaks, kuid seda ei tasu ilma ühisveevärgi veeta juua. Seoses turismi suurenemisega võib tekkida suveperioodil probleem, et vett ei jätku kõigile, sest veehaarde koormus muutub suureks. Selle lahenduseks oleks alternatiiv toota joogivett mereveest. Selleks tuleks sadama piirkonda paigaldada pöördosmoosiseade, mis eemaldab veest liigse soola ning ka muud ühendid. Teise variandina oleks võimalik merevett destilleerida, kuid see oleks liiga kulukas väike saare jaoks. Tulevikuvaatena on see täiesti mõeldav, et toota mereveest joogivett. Üldiselt püsielanikud on oma joogiveega rahul, kuid siiski on vaja raua- ja mangaanisisaldus normi piiresse viia ning rakendada uusi tehnoloogiaid kui olemasolevast veehaardest ei piisa.

Abstract [en]

The topic of this graduation thesis is the water system of Prangli Island. The main goal was to compare the old water treatment system to the new one. The results were obtained by analysing the water samples taken in 1999 and 2015. Another goal was to propose the alternatives to make the water quality meet the standard limits. Prangli Island belongs to the municipality of Viimsi and is inhabited by 150 people. During the summer period, the figure is several times higher due to tourists and summer residents. The water treatment system that was built in 1999 did not satisfy the island's water needs and it was necessary to build a new and more efficient treatment system. The new treatment system was completed in 2014. It uses the same water intake as the old system, but the quality of water has improved due to the new technology. The water comes from the Quaternary aquifer at 12 meters below the ground. The old pipes were full of iron sediment and the pressure became lower, but now there are plastic tubes which do not rust and the pressure remains constant. Prangli Island's new water treatment system meets the construction drawings which were made before the installation, and the consumers are satisfied with the quality of water. The biggest problem of Prangli Island was and still is a high iron and manganese content in the water. With the new system the water reaching the consumers has a lower iron and manganese content, but it still does not meet Regulation No. 82 by Minister of Social Affairs. In order to meet the drinking water standard limits it is required to find a solution. One solution would be the use of reverse osmosis in combination with an electro-deionisation device. The reverse osmosis device would eliminate the excess iron and manganese which was not removed by the iron-removal device. Secondly, chlorine could be added, which would make the iron removal several times more efficient. Another solution would be to install a private reverse osmosis device in each household to improve the quality of water, but that water should not be drunk without mixing it with the water from the treatment system because it alone is too pure for people. In connection with the increase in tourism during the summer period there may lack of water due to increased water intake load. An alternative solution would be to produce drinking water from sea water. A reverse osmosis device should be installed in the port region to remove the excess salt as well as other compounds from the sea water. Alternatively, it would be possible to distill sea water, but it would be too expensive for a small island. In the future it is entirely conceivable to produce drinking water from sea water. Generally, the permanent residents are satisfied with their drinking water quality, but the iron and manganese concentration must be kept within the standard limits. Also it is necessary to figure out how to behave when the existing water intake would become insufficient.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Nele Nilb
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Drinking and Waste Water Processing and Networks
Divisions: Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Engineering (until 2017) > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Kätlin Hiis
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2015 06:24
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2015 06:24
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1105

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