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Asfaldivõrgud

Vettik, Elari (2015) Asfaldivõrgud. [thesis] [en] Asphalt Nets.

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Abstract

Käesoleva lõputöö teemaks on “Asfaldivõrgud“. Teema valikul mängis suurt rolli eestikeelse informatsiooni vähesus asfaldi geosünteetide ja sarnaste toodete kohta ning teadmatus, milliste probleemide vastu kasutada asfaldivõrke. Töös tuuakse välja mitmesuguseid teekatteid mõjutavaid faktoreid, mis tekitavad tee pinnale erinevaid defekte. Teel esinevate kahjustuste põhjustajad on põhiliselt ilmastik, aluspinnase iseärasused ning liikluskoormuse suurenemine. Nende kolme mõjutusel tekivad kattesse defektid nagu näiteks eri tüüpi praod, roopad ja murenemised. Kuna defekte on erinevaid, peab olema ka mitmesuguseid lahendusi, seetõttu saabki kasutada erinevaid tugevdussüsteeme. Kattekihtide vahele paigutatavad tugevdused on geovõrgud, geotekstiilid, geokomposiidid, terasvõrgud ja SAMI vahekihid. Loetletud tugevdusi valmistatakse mitmesugustest materjalidest, erineb ka tootmisviis, mis annab toodetele erinevad omadused. Vastavalt toote omadustele ja kindlaks tehtud defektile saab projekteerija valida toote, mida oma projektis kasutada. Projekteerimisel tuleb veel eelnevalt teha pinnaseanalüüs, et teada saada, kas defekti põhjus on pinnases. Kui pinnas enam ei kanna, siis ei ole mõtet teekatte parandamisel, vaid tuleb parandada tervet teekonstruktsiooni või ehitada uus. Töö pöörab tähelepanu ka asfaldivõrkude paigaldusele, mis on vastavalt tootele mõneti erinev. Paigaldusel mängib kindlasti rolli ka ilmastik, kuna asfaldivõrkude paigaldusel kasutatakse kruntimiseks bituumenisisaldusega tooteid ja ülekate on üldjuhul asfaltbetoon või mingi pindamise liik, nende materjalidega töötades peab temperatuur olema vähemalt +5 C° ja sademed ei ole lubatud. Paigaldamismeeskond peaks kindlasti omama eriseadmeid ja olema välja koolitatud, et projekt lõppeks edukalt. Asfaldivõrkude innovatsiooni poole pealt räägin geotekstiilist, mille sisse on paigaldatud väikesed kiibid. Tänu sellele on võimalik täpselt teada teekonstruktsiooni olemust praegusel hetkel ning mida seal varem tehtud on ja mis projekti järgi. See kõik tuleb kasutajale käepäraselt arvutisse või mõnda teise nutiseadmesse. Tulevikus tuleks kindlasti edasi arendada asfaldivõrkude katsetamist, nii laboratoorselt kui ka reaalsetel objektidel. Eestis on seda ka tehtud, aga kindlasti tuleks veel teha ja rohkem, et teada saada erinevate toodete kasulikkus just Eesti tingimustes.

Abstract [en]

The topic of the present Final Paper is Asphalt Nets. The lack of relevant information in Estonian concerning asphalt geosynthetics and similar products as well as in case of which problems to employ asphalt nets, was a major reason for choosing this as the topic of this paper. This paper outlines several factors influencing road pavement, which cause different defects on the surface of the road. The main causes for the damages on the surface of the road are weather, peculiarities in the ground surface below the road and an increase in traffic. Defects in the pavement, such as cracks, ruts and crumbling develop under the influence the three factors. Since the defects are different, the solutions must be different as well, therefore it is possible to use different systems of reinforcement. The following reinforcements are placed under the covers of pavement: geonets, geotextiles, geocomposites, steel nets and SAMI (stress absorbing membrane interlayer) interlayers. The highlighted reinforcements are made of different materials and the method of production also differs, giving the products different qualities. The designer can choose the product to be incorporated in the project based on the qualities of the product and the nature of the defect. A ground analysis must be performed before designing a project to determine whether the ground itself is not the cause of the defect. When the ground no longer carries, then there is no reason in fixing the pavement but the whole road construction should be fixed or a new one built. The paper also focuses on the installation of asphalt nets, which differs in the case of different products. An important factor in the process of installation is weather because in the installation of asphalt nets, bitumen-based products are used for priming and generally the top pavement is concrete asphalt or some other form of paving. When working with these materials, the temperature must be at least +5 C° and no precipitation is allowed. The installation team should have special equipment and have training for all the projects to end in success. Concerning the innovation of asphalt nets, the paper focuses on geotextile, which features little chips installed in it. Owing to that, it is possible to always know the state of the road construction and to know what has been done earlier and according to which project. All this information is available for the user in the computer or any other smart device. Testing asphalt nets should definitely be developed in the future, in laboratories as well as real objects. It has been done in Estonia, but the testing should continue to determine the usefulness of different products in Estonian conditions.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Sillamäe Sven
Subjects: Construction > Road Construction > Road design > Geosynthetics in road construction
Construction > Road Construction > Road design > Road construction materials
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Road Construction
Depositing User: Elari Vettik
Date Deposited: 09 Jun 2015 13:07
Last Modified: 09 Jun 2015 13:07
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1058

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