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Lada 21213 tagavedrustuse kinemaatika projekteerimine

Lõbus, Roby (2015) Lada 21213 tagavedrustuse kinemaatika projekteerimine. [thesis] [en] Designing Kinematics of Lada 21213 Rear Suspension.

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Abstract

Käesoleva lõputöö käigus selgub, et töö alguses püstitatud eesmärgid on täidetavad. Ilma, et Lada Niva välimuses tehtaks suuremaid muutusi, on temast võimalik veelgi parem maastur teha kui tehasest tulles. Põhieesmärk, et vähendada tunduvalt tagaosa parasiitroolimist on teoreetiliselt tõestatud. Selleks projekteeris lõputöö autor Nivale klassikalise nelja vardaga tagavedrustuse. Antud juhul oli võimalik enim probleeme tekitav tagumine ristivarras välja jätta. Seega kaotati kere üles – alla õõtsumisel sillatala suur külgsuunaline liikumine. Õõtshoobade pikkuste omavahelist suhet ja kinnituspunktide asukohti muutes, töötati välja lahendus, kus kere sai sillatala suhtes rohkem kalduda kui originaalis ning sillatala kaasa keeramine sealjuures oli tunduvalt väiksem kui alguses. Kui varasema 22 kraadise kere kaldumise puhul pöördus sild 3,62 kraadi oma algsest asendist, siis uue geomeetria puhul saab kere kalduda 25 kraadi ja selle ajal pöördub sild vaid 0,34 kraadi. Alusvankri asend muudeti originaalist kere suhtest 50 mm alla poole, mis võimaldab paigaldada sõidukile 31/10,5 rehvid, seetõttu muutub sõiduk veel 50 mm kõrgemaks. Kogu sillakäik on uuel vedrustusgeomeetrial 365 mm, mis on algsest 35 mm suurem. Suurem sillakäik parandab tunduvalt ka maastikul liikumise võimekust. Sõiduasendist alla poole saab sild liikuda 150 mm ja sõiduasendist ülespoole saab sild liikuda 215 mm. Võrreldes neid tulemusi algsetega, siis silla liikumine üles suurenes 50 mm ja silla liikumine alla vähenes 15 mm. Õõtshoovad projekteeriti piisava tugevusvaruga, et olla kindel ka ekstreemolukordades nende vastupidavuses. Näiteks alumised hoovad peavad vastu ka siis kui sõiduk kukuks terve oma massiga ühele alumisele hoova torule. Õõtshoova otsliigendites kasutatakse seniste kummipukside asemel sfäärilisi kuulliigendeid, mis annavad piisava tugevusvaru ja liikumismaa. Kuna käsitletakse ainult Lada Niva tagavedrustuse teoreetilist ja arvutuslikku osa ja reaalselt käesoleva lõputöö jooksul valmis ei ehitata, on antud töö jätkusuutlik, et edaspidi välja arendada ka sõiduki esisilla kinemaatikat.

Abstract [en]

This final paper shows whether the objectives set at the beginning of the paper can be achieved. Without making any significant alterations in the appearance of Lada Niva, it is possible to make it into an even better off-road vehicle than it was when coming out of the factory. In theory, it has been proven that the main objective of significantly reducing the parasitic steering of the rear is possible. For that purpose, the author of the final paper designed a classic four-rod rear suspension for the Niva. In this case, it was possible to leave out the rear perpendicular rod that creates the most problems. Thereby, it became possible to prevent the significant sideways movement of the rear axle beam when the body moves up and down. By changing the ratios of the lengths of control arms and the locations of fastening points, a solution was developed where the body could tilt more in relation to the axle beam than originally designed, whereas the turn of the axle beam was significantly reduced. While in case of the earlier 22 degree tilt of the body, the axle turned 3.62 degrees from its initial position, then with the new geometry, the body can be titled 25 degrees and the axle only turns by 0.34 degrees. The position of the undercarriage to the body was brought 50 mm below the original position, which enables installing 31/10.5 tyres to the vehicle, thereby making the vehicle 50 mm higher. With the new suspension geometry, the whole axle lift is 365 mm, which is 35 mm more than originally. The higher axle lift significantly improves the capacity to move on terrain. The axle can move 150 mm below the driving position and 215 mm above the driving position. Comparing these results with the original shows that the upwards movement of the axle increased by 50 mm and the downwards movement decreased by 15 mm. The control arms were designed with a sufficient strength buffer to make sure that they could withstand extreme situations. For example, the lower control arms are capable of sustaining the vehicle falling on one of the lower control arms with its whole mass. New rod end type ball joints were used as the control arm joints instead of the former rubber bushings as these give a sufficient resistance buffer and movement amplitude. As only the theoretical and calculated characteristics of the rear suspension of Lada Niva are covered in this final paper and an actual vehicle is not built, the paper could be used to develop also the kinematics of the front axle of the vehicle in the future.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Margus Villau
Subjects: Transport > Automotive engineering > Car construction > Body and chassis
Divisions: Institute of Engineering > Automotive Engineering
Depositing User: Roby Lõbus
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2015 08:51
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2015 08:51
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1028

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