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Hobisõiduki diiselmootori võimsuse kahekordistamine

Tikas, H-H (2015) Hobisõiduki diiselmootori võimsuse kahekordistamine. [thesis] [en] Doubling the performance of a diesel engine in a hobby vehicle.

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Abstract

Kokkuvõtvalt saab öelda, et antud projekt on väga aeganõudev ja probleemseid kohti on kogu töö vältel olnud palju. Eesmärgiks seatud 170 kW 2400 p/min juures ja 420 Nm 3500 p/min juures ei saavutatud, sest vasest isetehtud plokikaane tihend ei pidanud selle töörõhu juures ilma lisatihenduseta vastu ning autol tekkis veojõu mõõtmise stendis kompressiooni kadu. Maksimaalseks võimsuseks jäi selle mootori puhul Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkooli veojõu stendis mõõdetuna 119 kW 4700 p/min juures ja 300 Nm 3000 p/min juures, mis ei ole püstitatud eesmärgile ligilähedalgi. Kuna projekt on praeguse seisuga püstitatud eesmärgi kohaselt ebaedukas, siis saab kirja panna ka probleemid, mis edaspidi lahendamist vajavad. Esmane suurim probleem oli plokikaane tihendi lekked. Selle vastu aitaks nii plokikaande kui silindriplokki freesitud rõngad, mille sisse paigutatakse terastraat. See tagaks olukorra, kus terastraat surub vase silindri ümber tihendaks. Teiseks läbivaks probleemiks kogu teema väletel on kütuse doseerimine mootorisse vastavalt ülelaaderõhule ja auto koormusele, mille lahendusena töötaks ainult kahe turbo süsteem. Kahjuks aga tudengile sobivas hinnaskaalas ning ajaliste piirangute tõttu seda teha võimalik ei olnud. Seega jääb see tuleviks lahendatavaks probleemiks. Kogu projekti maksumus oli 8840 eurot, mis teeb kilovati hinnaks 240 eurot. Kogu summast 2260 eurot olid sisseostetud teenused ja materjalid ning 6650 eurot on kulunud aeg. Seega on selge, et tudengile sobivas hinnaskaalas ei ole võimalik vähemalt lühikese aja vältel modifitseerida eelpõlemiskambriga diiselmootorit, mille võimsus oleks kaks korda suurem kui tehase oma. Lisaks ei saa suurte võimsuste puhul säilitada auto tänavakõlblikkust mõistlike kuludega. Siinse töö autor õppis kogu projekti vältel diiselmootori tööpõhimõtet, lugema turbolaadurite kõveraid, valima sõidukile sobivat turbolaadurit vastavalt vajadusele ning sai teada, kui kulukas ja ajamahukas on tõsta mootori võimekust. Lõpetuseks tuleks märkida, et töö oli püstitatud eesmärgi suhtes ebaedukas, kuid väga õpetlik.

Abstract [en]

The subject of this thesis is based on the authorʼs long ownership of a 1984 BMW 5 Series, with a turbocharged 2.4 litre turbo-diesel engine. The car has a M21D24 lean-burn engine that causes cooling problems. The second problem is accurate fuel dosage into the engine - at low rpm, without boost pressure, the fuel does not burn completely in the engine, causing sooting and too high burning temperature. The aim of this thesis is to introduce the working principles of a diesel engine, increasing of its performance, and solve problems originating from it. In other words, the aim is to find out if it is possible to increase the performance two times on the 1984 diesel engine, by keeping the cars eligibility to drive on the street at the same time. The double original power is 170 kW at 4800 rmp and 420 Nm at 3500 rmp. All work has been done at a suitable price scale for the student. The spare parts are found mainly via forums, from scrap yards and other affordable sources. The subject of the thesis is unique because increasing the performance of a diesel engine has not been researched before in TTK University of Applied Sciences. It can be said that this project is very time consuming and there have been many issues throughout the work. The target aimed to get 170 kW at 2400 rmp and 420 Nm at 3500 rmp was not achieved due to a technical fault. The maximum power of this engine was marked at the chassis dynamometer of TKK University of Applied Sciences at 119 kW at 4700 rpm and 300 Nm at 3000 rpm, which is not even close to the aimed target. As the project has not fulfilled its original aim, the problems that need to be resolved in the future, can be listed. The first major issue are the leaks in the cylinder head gasket. This can be fixed with milled rings that are filled with steel wire and placed into the cylinder head and cylinder block. This would ensure a situation where the steel wire compresses the copper tightly around the cylinder. Because of the lack of time and its high cost, the student was not able to do this. Thus this problem needs to be solved in the future. Total cost of the project was 8840 euros, the cost for 1 kW was 240 Euros. 2260 euros from the total amount went on services and materials, and 6650 euros went on working time. This proves that the student is not able to modify a diesel engine for doubling its performance in a short period of time and with a suitable budget. The author of this thesis learnt the working principles of the diesel engine, to read the turbocharger curves, choose the right turbocharger for a car considering its needs, and also found out how costly and time consuming it is to increase performance of engine. Finally, it should be noted that the target of the work was not found however it was very instructive for the author of the thesis.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Aimar Lukk
Subjects: Transport > Automotive engineering > Car construction > Internal combustion engine
Divisions: Institute of Engineering > Automotive Engineering
Depositing User: Hugo - Henrik Tikas
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2015 08:20
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2015 08:20
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1012

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